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A new species of Eremonotus from Morocco, with some remarks about the subfamily Apocleinae in the Palaearctic region (Diptera, Asilidae)

[Eine neue Eremonotus-Art aus Marocko und einige Bemerkungen über die Unterfamilie Apocleinae in der Paläarktis (Diptera, Asilidae)]

by
Fritz GELLER-GRIMM and Milan HRADSKÝ
Frankfurt a. M. (Germany)     Zásmuky (Czech Republic)
(1998)

[Published in: Studia Dipterologica 5(1): 61-66, Halle an der Saale]


Abstract: Eremonotus hauseri spec. nov. from Morocco is described and illustrated. It is compared with the other known species of the genus, and a key is given. A key for the Palaearctic genera of the subfamily Apocleinae is presented and the authors discuss the presence of Neolophonotus Engel, 1925 in the Palaearctic region.
Key words: Diptera, Asilidae, Apocleinae, Neolophonotus, Eremonotus, spec. nov., key, Palaearctic, Morocco, Tunisia

Zusammenfassung: Eremonotus hauseri spec. nov. aus Marocko wird beschrieben und illustriert. Die Unterschiede zu der bereits beschriebenen Art dieser Gattung werden in einem Schlüssel herausgearbeitet. Ein Bestimmungsschlüssel für die paläarktischen Gattungen der Unterfamilie Apocleinae wird vorgestellt und die Autoren diskutieren das Vorhandensein der Gattung Neolophonotus Engel, 1925 in der Paläarktis.
Stichwörter: Diptera, Asilidae, Apocleinae, Neolophonotus, Eremonotus, spec. nov., Schlüssel, Paläarktis, Marocko, Tunesien

 

Introduction

Study of Asilidae from North-Africa and Israel has established that specimens of Eremonotus from Morocco are different from the types of Eremonotus nudus Theodor, 1980, which Dr. Freidberg (Tel Aviv) placed at our disposal. E. nudus is recorded from Tunisia for the first time. Eremonotus is a member of the subfamily Apocleinae but there is no recent key, incorporating this genus. An illustrated key for the subfamily is therefore presented. Examination of the currently listed Palaearctic species of Neolophonotus has established that the genus is restricted to the Afrotropical region. All five species listed in the catalog of Palaearctic Diptera (Lehr, 1988) are either not species of Neolophonotus s.str. or their distribution is limited to the Afrotropical region.

Abbreviations:

  • SMFD = Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)
  • SMNS = Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart (Germany)
  • TAUI = Tel Aviv University, Zoological Museum, Insect Collection (Israel)
  • ZMHB = Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin (Germany)
  • ZSMC = Zoologische Staatssammlung, München (Germany)

 

Description

Eremonotus hauseri spec. nov. (Fig. 1a-g)

Material: Holotype: Morocco, Amesnaz, 30 km NNW Agadir, 3038'N 947'W, 21.IV.1996, M. Schwarz leg., male; Paratypes: Morocco, High Atlas, 30 km S Tizi-n-Test, 3031'N 824'W, 21.V.1995, M. Hauser leg., 2 males, 6 females; Marocco, Aoulouz, 09.V.1992, 3041'N 810'W, Hradský leg., 6 males, 1 female. The holotype has been deposited in the collection of the Zoologische Staatssammlung München (ZSMC) and the paratypes in the collections of M. Hradský, M. Hauser and F. Geller-Grimm.

Holotype: Male. Length = 17 mm, Wings = 11 mm.
Head black with white tomentum, only the outer corners of the mouth margin are shining. Face tubercle low, extending close to the antennae (as in E. nudus). Mystax with strong whitish bristles at the mouth extending in the middle to near its centre, the thin white hair outside and above them, and reaching close to the antennae. Orbital hair, ocellar and occipital bristles mixed black and white; all other hairs and bristels are white. Antennae black, except for a red area at the base of the 3rd segment, with grey tomentum and black and white hair; ratio of segments (1st, 2nd, 3rd, style): 1 to 0,7 to 1,4 to 1,3 (3rd segment distinctly longer than segment 1).
Thorax black with whitish, greyish and brownish tomentum; with two dark brown median stripes. Mesonotum with black short hair on disc; white hair on shoulders and in front of scutellum. Bristles: 2 notopleural, 2 supraalar, 2 postalar and 5 dorsocentral (behind the transverse suture); all black, except the yellow notopleural bristles. Pleura with greyish and brownish tomentum and white hair. Scutellum brown tomentose, with several white hairs on disc and 8 yellow scutellar bristles. Metanotal slopes without hair.
Wings as for the genus, something brownish tinged; with microtrichia at the apex.
Legs black and red. Coxae black with greyish tomentum. Femora black with a red stripe dorsally and a red base (norrow on the hind femur) [observe variation], usually thicker than in E. nudus; with yellowish hair and black and yellow mixed bristles (especially at the apex). Fore and middle tibiae red with dark apex; hind tibia blackish, only red at the base; with yellowish hair and black and yellow mixed bristles. Tarsi darker (hind tarsi black); with yellowish hair; bristles yellow dorsally, black ventrally, hind tarsi only with black bristles.
Abdomen with greyish tomentum on sternites and on the sides of tergites, disc of tergites with brownish tomentum. Hair on tergites short, white and in the middle of each segment distinctly black; hair on sternites yellowish and longer on the first three sternites. Latero-discal bristles yellowish and strong.
Male genitalia dark brown with withish hair (Fig. 1a-g). Dististylus curved, with 2 points at the apex (Fig. 1.g) and a spike in the middle of the ventral rim). Aedeagus with a long apodeme, longer than the sheath (Fig. 1.d).
Female like the male. Ovipositor similar to E. nudus.
Variation: Some of the paratypes have a higher proportion of yellow to black hair. Some paratypes have black femora with a red base and apex. Length of males = 16,5 - 17 mm, wings of males = 10 - 11 mm. Length of females = 15 - 19 mm, wings of females = 9 - 12 mm.
Derivatio nominis: The species is named after Martin Hauser (Darmstadt).


list of keys

 

Key to the species of Eremonotus Theodor, 1980

1

Hair on ocellum and occipital bristles mainly white; bristels on mesonotum mainly black behind the transverse suture; fore and mid tibiae rarely with few black setae; short hair on legs whitish; costa in front of humeral crossvein with only yellow hair; short hair on the back of tergites mainly whitish; hair on sternites 7 and 8 more adpressed; male genitalia: apex of dististylus rounded, with only one dorsal point; apodeme shorter than the sheath (Fig. 831-838. In: Theodor, 1980) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nudus Theodor, 1980

-

Hair on ocellum and occipital bristles mainly black and yellowish mixed; bristles on mesonotum mainly yellowish behind the transverse suture; fore and mid tibiae with black and yellow bristles mixed; short hair on legs yellowish; costa in front of humeral crossvein with yellow and black hair; short hair on the back of tergites mainly whitish; hair on sternites 7 and 8 erect; male genitalia (Fig. 1a-g): apex of dististylus concave, with two points; dististylus with a distinct spike on the ventral rim; apodeme 1,2 times longer than the sheath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hauseri spec. nov.

back to the description

 

Eremonotus hauseri spec. nov.

Fig. 1a-g. Eremonotus hauseri spec. nov., male. - a. Hypopygium in lateral view; - b. Hypandrium in ventral view; - c. Basistylus in lateral view; - d. Aedeagus in lateral view; - e. Aedeagus in dorsal view; - f. Dististylus in lateral view (inner side); - g. Dististylus in lateral view (outer side).

 

First record of Eremonotus nudus Theodor, 1980 from North Africa

Eremonotus nudus Theodor, 1980 was described from Israel. It has now also been found in the mountains of Matmata (Tunisia, Matmata, 3333'N 958'E, 7.IV.1995, 2 males, 1 female, F. Geller-Grimm leg.). It was recorded together with Amphisbetetus favillaceus (Loew in Rosenhauer, 1856), Antiphrisson trifarius (Loew, 1849), Dysmachus theodori Engel, 1930, Habropogon appendiculatus Schiner, 1867, Habropogon bipartitus Villeneuve, 1931, Heteropogon aureus Becker, 1907, Holopogon dichromatopus Bezzi, 1926 and two unidentified species of Saropogon. E. nudus flying over sandy pathes between the terraced fields. The Tunisian specimens differs only from the Israeli paratypes in the form of hair on the 8th sternite in males, which is denser and longer.


list of keys

 

Key to the Palaearctic Apocleinae

The name Apocleina was used by Lehr (1969) for a small group of genera with similar characteristics. Papavero (1973) took up the name for the subfamily. Lehr (1988) listed the following Palaearctic genera: Alcimus Loew (not Palaearctic), Apoclea Macquart, Philodicus Loew and Promachus Loew. He places Eremonotus Theodor and Neolophonotus Engel under the subfamily Asilinae and did not consider Hippomachus Engel. Some parts of the following key are borrowed from Oldroyd (1963).

1

Wing with three submarginal cells (Fig. 2.a, b), the recurrent veinlet isn't always complete in Apoclea (Fig. 2.c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

-

Wing only with two submarginal cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

 
2

First posterior cell closed and stalked, or at least very strongly narrowed on wing margin; crossvein seperating second and third submarginal cells (Fig. 2.c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apoclea Macquart, 1838

-

First posterior cell open, not strongly narrowed towards margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

 
3

Apparent cross-vein formed by base of the second submarginal cell situated beyond the apex of the distal cell (Fig. 2.a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Promachus - group
(Promachus is a complex of different genera and a revision is necessary.)

-

Apparent cross-vein formed by base of the second submarginal cell situated before the apex of the discal cell (Fig. 2.b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philodicus - group
(Philodicus is also a complex of different genera and a revision is necessary.)

 
4

Third antennal segment with only a short, wide, rather thin microsegment bearing an apical spine (Fig. 2.d); middle femur very greatly thickened and swollen, with much thickened spinose bristles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polyphonius Loew, 1848

-

Third antennal segment with a distinct style; middle femur not very greatly thickened and swollen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

 
5

Mesonotum with well developed acrostichal and dorsocentral bristles (like a mane); wings of males dilated on costal margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

-

Mesonotum without an extraordinary mane of acrostichal and dorsocentral bristles; wings of males without dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

 
6

Abdominal segments 6 - 9 shining in females, ovipositor long and narrow, cerci free (like Neoitamus, Fig. 2.e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yksdarhus Hradský & Hüttinger, 1983

-

Abdominal segments 1 - 8 with tomentum in females; ovipositor shorter, cerci integrated into the ovipositor (like Dysmachus, Fig. 2.f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hippomachus Engel, 1927

 
7

Ocelli distinctly visible; ovipositor dorsolateral compressed, without bands of spines at the end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eremonotus Theodor, 1980

-

Ocelli reduced to small spots; ovipositor cylindrical, with spines at the apex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Apoclea Macquart, 1838

back to the key

 

Palaearctic Apocleinae

Fig. 2a-e. Palaearctic Apocleinae. - a. wing of Promachus; - b. wing of Philodicus; - c. wing of Apoclea; - d. antenna of Polyphonius; - e. ovipositor of Yksdarhus; - f. ovipositor of Hippomachus.

list of keys

 

Remarks about Neolophonotus Engel, 1925 in Palaearctic region

Lehr (1988) includes 5 species of Neolophonotus in his Palaearctic catalog under the subfamily Asilinae. Londt (1985) unravels the confused history of this genus and clarifies the scope of the subfamily Apocleinae. The discussion in the following list shows, that all Neolophonotus species listed by Lehr (1988) are either not species of Neolophonotus s.str. or they are distributed only in the Afrotropical region, although reaching to its northern border (Egypt). Only N. efflatouni Londt, 1987 (= N. molitor auct. Efflatoun, 1934) has been recorded from as far north as Middle Egypt.

1. Lophonotus albiciliatus Loew, 1854 = Dysmachus albiciliatus sensu Loew, 1860
Four syntypes from Egypt are deposited in the collection of the ZMHB. Our examination confirms the opinion of Loew (1860: 145) and Engel (1930: 106) that this species should be transfered into Dysmachus (Efflatoun (1934), Hull (1962) and Lehr (1996) also describe it as Dysmachus).

2. Lophonotus macropterus Loew, 1854 = Dysmachus macropterus sensu Loew, 1860
at this taxon should be placed under the subfamily Asilinae. Loew (1860: 145) for the same reason referred it to Dysmachus. Our present study is not complete, but a description of this taxon and other species of the group is in preparation and will published in due course.

3. Asilus mivatus Walker, 1871 = Hippomachus mivatus (Walker, 1871) sensu Londt (1983)
Londt (1983) examined the type and placed it under Hippomachus.

4. Trichonotus pegasus Loew, 1858 = Hippomachus pegasus (Loew, 1858) sensu Londt (1983)
Londt (1983) also checked the types of this species and placed it under Hippomachus.

5. Lophonotus spiniventris Loew, 1858 (not Palaearctic)
Londt (1987) writes: "Although the holotype lacks locality data I am convinced that it must have come from the Cape Province of South Africa as it resembles closely other material from there. ..." and "Efflatoun (1934) lists spiniventris as an Egyptian species. I have not seen any of his material but strongly doubt the identification. Bezzi's species, leucotaenia, may in fact be the species seen by Efflatoun."

 

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to Mr. M. Hauser (Darmstadt), Dr. A. Freidberg (TAUI), Dr. M. Kotrba (ZMHB), Mr. M. Schwarz (Ansfelden) and Prof. Dr. W. Tobias (SMFD) for the loan of additional material and help. We also thank Mrs. G. Miksch (SMNS) and Dr. M. Smart (Wolverhampton) for valuable critical comments.

 

Literature

  • Efflatoun, B.H.C. (1934): A Monograph of Egyptian Diptera Part IV. Family Asilidae (Section I). - Mémoires de la Société (royale) entomologique d'Égypte 4(2): 1-198; Le Cairo.
  • Engel, E.O. (1930): 24. Asilidae. - In: Lindner, E. (Eds.): Die Fliegen der Paläarktischen Region. Band 4(24): 491 pp.; Stuttgart.
  • Hull, F.M. (1962): Robber flies of the world. - Bulletin of the United States National Museum 224(1,2): 1-907; Washington.
  • Lehr, P.A. (1969): An ecological and morphological analysis of the Robber Flies (Dipt., Asilidae). Communication II. - Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 48(3): 532-560; Moscow [also: Entomological review 48(3): 341-357; Washington].
  • Lehr, P.A. (1988): Family Asilidae. - In: Soós, A. & Papp, L. (Eds): Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera 5: 197-326; Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó & Amsterdam [and others]: Elsevier.
  • Loew, H. (1860): Die Dipteren-Fauna Südafrikas. Erste Abtheilung. - Abhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Sachsen und Thüringen 2(1858-1861): 57-402; Halle.
  • Londt, J.G.H. (1983): Afrotropical Asilidae (Diptera) 9. The genus Hippomachus Engel, 1927 (Asilinae: Asilini). - Annals of the Natal Museum 25(2): 441-448; Pietermaritzburg.
  • Londt, J.G.H. (1985): Afrotropical Asilidae (Diptera) 12. The genus Neolophonotus Engel, 1925. Part 1. The chionthrix, squamosus and angustibarbus species-groups (Asilinae: Asilini). - Annals of the Natal Museum 27(1): 39-114; Pietermaritzburg.
  • Londt, J.G.H. (1987): Afrotropical Asilidae (Diptera) 14. The genus Neolophonotus Engel, 1925. Part 3. The pellitus species-group (Asilinae, Asilini). - Annals of the Natal Museum 28(2): 383-454; Pietermaritzburg.
  • Oldroyd, H. (1963): The tribes and genera of the African Asilidae (Diptera). - Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde 107: 1-16; Stuttgart.
  • Papavero, N. (1973): Studies of Asilidae (Diptera) systematics and evolution. I. A preliminary classification in subfamilies. - Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de Sao Paulo 23: 217-274; Sao Paulo.
  • Theodor, O. (1980): Fauna Palaestina - Insecta II - Diptera: Asilidae. 446 pp.; Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Science and Humantities.

 

Author's addresses

Fritz Geller-Grimm
Spielmannstr. 20
D-65934 Frankfurt a.M.
Germany

Milan Hradský
Mlékovice 40
CS-28144 Zásmuky
Czech Republic




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