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Notes on the genus Mactea Richter & Mamaev, 1976 (Diptera: Asilidae)
including the description of new species

[Bemerkungen zur Gattung Mactea Richter & Mamaev, 1976 (Diptera: Asilidae)
nebst der Beschreibung neuer Arten]

by
Milan HRADSKÝ and Fritz GELLER-GRIMM
Zásmuky (Czech Republic)     Frankfurt a. M. (Germany)
(2003)

[published in: Studia Dipterologica 9(2) (2002): 87-91, Halle an der Saale]


Abstract: Four species of the genus Mactea Richter & Mamaev, 1976 are recognized, two of them being described as new (M. chinensis spec. nov., M. matsumurai spec. nov.). A key for their identification and comments on their distribution are provided. Mactea pyrrhothrix (Hermann, 1914) is removed from Choerades Walker, 1851 and Andrenosoma otanegawana (Matsumura, 1916) is removed from Mactea (comb. nov.). All species are redescribed and illustrations and photographs are provided.
Key words: Insecta, Diptera, Asilidae, Mactea, Andrenosoma, new records, new species, new combination, key, Palaearctic, Oriental, China, Japan, Russia, Taiwan

Zusammenfassung: Goneccalypsis gooti spec. nov. aus Spanien wird beschrieben und illustriert. Die Gattung Mactea Richter & Mamaev, 1976 wird untersucht. Vier Arten werden festgestellt, zwei davon neu beschrieben (M. chinensis spec. nov., M. matsumurai spec. nov.). Ein Bestimmungsschlüssel und Kommentare zur Verbreitung der Arten werden vorgestellt. Mactea pyrrhothrix (Hermann, 1914) wird aus der Gattung Choerades Walker, 1851 und Andrenosoma otanegawana (Matsumura, 1916) aus der Gattung Mactea ausgegliedert (comb. nov.). Alle Arten werden beschrieben, im Farbfoto vorgestellt und teilweise illustriert.
Stichwörter: Insecta, Diptera, Asilidae, Mactea, Andrenosoma, neue Nachweise, neue Arten, neue Kombinationen, Bestimmungsschlüssel, Paläarktis, Orientalis, China, Japan, Rußland, Taiwan

 

Introduction

Species of Mactea Richter & Mamaev, 1976 are easily recognized by their large proboscis, which is upturned in the apical third and the shape of the male genitalia. The genus is confined to the eastern part of the Palaearctic region and the Oriental region, which includes one species from Taiwan and an unidentified female from Sumatra. An accumulation of new material in the collection of the first author and confusion concerning the correct placement of species of Mactea and of Andrenosoma otanegawana prompted this study. History of systematic work on Mactea

We give an uncommented summary of the systematic work on Mactea in brief outlines.

  • Richter & Mamaev (1976) erected the genus with the description of the type species, avocettina, from Russia (Primorskiy kray) and provided drawings of the head in lateral view, the male genitalia in lateral and dorsal view, as well as drawings of the larva and pupa.
  • Lehr (1979) provided new distributional records for M. avocettina from the Amur region.
  • Lehr (1988) recorded only two species in the genus: M. avocettina and M. otanegawana (Matsumura, 1916). The latter had been mistakenly transferred from Laphria Meigen, 1803 to Pogonosoma Rondani, 1856 by Shiraki (1959) and subsequently correctly assigned to Andrenosoma Rondani, 1856 by Hisamatsu (1965), who provided a photograph of a specimen in dorsal view.
  • Lehr (1989) provided a key to the genera of the Palaearctic Laphriinae and reported new records of M. avocettina from Russia.
  • Lehr (1991) transferred Laphria pyrrhothrix Hermann, 1914 (from Taiwan) to Choerades Walker, 1851.
  • Shi (1992a, b) provided new records of Laphria pyrrhotrix for China and illustrated the head in lateral view.
  • Lehr (1999) included Mactea in a key to the asilid genera of the Far East and provided a lateral view of the proboscis of M. avocettina.
Methods and material

Fourteen specimens of Mactea and the type of Andrenosoma otanegawana from the Matsumura collection were studied and illustrated. The drawings and measurements given in this paper were made using a stereoscopic microscope, an ocular micrometer, a digital camera system and various graphic software. Morphological terminology follows mainly that of McAlpine (1981) while antennal terminology follows Stuckenberg (1999).
Abbreviations:
EIHU = Coll. Matsumura, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
COGG = Coll. Fritz Geller-Grimm, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
COMH = Coll. Milan Hradský, Zásmuky, Czech Republic
HNHM = Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary
ZSMC = Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany

Systematic part

Andrenosoma otanegawana Matsumura, 1916 reinst. comb.
(Figs 1-3, 7-9)

Laphria otanegawana Matsumura, 1916: 297 (Thousand Ins. Japan, Add. 2), type-locality: Hakkaido (Sapporo)
Pogonosoma otanegawana: Shiraki (1959)
Andrenosoma otanegawana: Hisamatsu (1965)
Mactea otanegowana: Lehr (1988) (misspelling)
Material
1) 1 type specimen (sex not diagnosable) with following labels: (a) Sapporo, Matsumura [4303'N 14121'E] - (b) Laphria otanegawana Matsum. [handwritten] - (c) Type Matsumura [red] - (d) Laphria otanegawana Matsumura; Coll. EIHU
2) 1 male with the following label: Japan, Asahikawa, 13.VIII. 1964 [4346'N 14222'E]; Coll. COGG
3) 1 male with the following label: Japan, Hokkaido, Asahikawa, 07.VII. 1963 [4346'N 14222'E]; Coll. COGG
4) 1 male with the following label: Japan, Hokkaido, Asahikawa, 07.VIII. 1963, leg. T. Akaishi [4346'N 14222'E]; Coll. COMH
5) 1 female with the following label: Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan, 26.VII. 1959, leg. T. Akaishi [4346'N 14222'E]; Coll. COMH
Geographic distribution: Japan, Russia - Far East (questionable).
Description of the type (1)
Head is lacking. Thorax black. Posterior antepronotum laterally brownish tomentose [anterior part is lacking], with white hairs and black bristles. Proepisternum and prosternum are lacking. Scutum with sparse brownish and silvery tomentum. Short hair on scutum predominantly black, aneriorly whitish, somewhat longer than the length of scape. Postpronotal lobes with black hairs. Bristles: 1 notopleural, 2 supra-alars, 6 postalars, and several acrostichals - all bristles are black. Pleurae black, brownish and whitisch tomentose and with predominantly white hairs (which are apically frizzy), except several black hairs on dorsum of anepisternum, which has 2 black bristles in front of wing base. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) yellowish, in 2-3 rows; hairs apically frizzy. Scutellum black, brownish tomentose on disc, silvery at base and sides; with white hair on disc, black and longer at hind margin; about 10 black scutellar bristles in 2 rows. Wings brownish tinged by microtrichia, which are somewhat sparsely on hind cells. Costa with black hairs at base. Venation: First radial cell, third medial cell, and posterior cubital cell closed and stalked; fifth radial cell closed at wing margin. [right wing is lacking]. Legs black with predominantly black and white hairs and black bristles [only right mid leg and left hind leg are existing]. Coxae silvery tomentose; with yellowish hairs. Mid femora with white hairs (ventrally longer) and black bristles. Hind femora swollen, ventrally and apically with black hairs, dorsally with white hairs and black bristles. Mid tibia black, with white hairs and black bristles. Hind tibia with predominantly white hairs and black bristles. Tarsomeres with black hairs (except the white hairs on first tarsomeres) and black bristles.
Abdomen black [only tergites 1-5 are existing]. Tergites shiny, with triangular spots of silvery tomentum at posterior angles of tergites 1-5. Short hair on disc is lacking [by mildew]; laterally with white hairs, which are longer on tergites 1-2; lateral bristles at posterior corners are lacking [but their bases are visible]. Sternites and genitalia are lacking.
Remark: The type is in bad condition, but the visible characteristics correspond to those of the additional specimens, which are described as follow.

Description of additional specimens (2-5)
Male. Head black, 1.5 times as wide as high. Face about 0.9 times as wide as an eye. Facial gibbosity prominent (Figs 1, 2). Face and frons with silvery tomentum. Mystax predominantly black (some few white hairs inside), not reaching antennal sockets. Facial hair white, except the black orbital hairs. Ocellar tubercle with white hairs and black bristles. Postcranium silvery tomentose; with black and white hairs. Postocular bristles black, in 2-3 rows. Genal hairs white. Palps black, apically flattened, with white hairs at base and some black hairs apically. Proboscis triangular in cross-section, ventrally flattened, curved upwards at tip; with white hairs and some black at tip. Antennae dark brownish to black, with silvery tomentum; black and white hairs and black bristles; ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel): 1 to 1 to 2.6. Postpedical tear-shaped with an apical pit (Fig. 3).
Thorax black. Antepronotum laterally brownish tomentose; with white hairs and black bristles. Proepisternum silvery tomentose; with predominantly black hairs. Prosternum fused. Scutum with sparse brownish and silvery tomentum. Short hair on scutum predominantly black, aneriorly whitish, somewhat longer than the length of scape. Postpronotal lobes with black hairs. Bristles: 1 notopleural, 2 supra-alars, 6 postalars, and several acrostichals - all bristles are black. Pleurae black, brownish and whitisch tomentose and with predominantly white hairs (which are apically frizzy), except several black hairs on dorsum of anepisternum, which has 2 black bristles in front of wing base. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) yellowish, in 2-3 rows; hairs apically frizzy. Postmetacoxal bridge membranous. Scutellum black , brownish tomentose on disc, silvery at base and sides, apically shiny; with white hair on disc, black and longer at hind margin; about 10-14 black scutellar bristles in 2 rows. Wings brownish tinged by microtrichia, which are somewhat sparsely on hind cells. Costa with black hairs at base. Venation: First radial cell, third medial cell, posterior cubital cell, and fifth radial cell closed and stalked. Legs black with predominantly black and white hairs and black bristles. Coxae silvery tomentose; with yellowish hairs. Fore femora and tibia with black and white hairs and black bristles. Mid femora with white hairs (ventrally longer) and black bristles. Hind femora swollen, ventrally and apically with black hairs, dorsally with white hairs and black bristles. Mid tibia black and white hairs and black bristles. Hind tibia with predominantly white hairs and black bristles. Tarsomeres with black hairs (except the white hairs on first tarsomeres) and black bristles.
Abdomen black. Tergites shiny, with triangular spots of silvery tomentum at posterior angles of tergites 1-5 and silvery to brownish tomentum at base of tergites 1-3. Short hair on disc adpressed and black; tergites laterally with yellowish hairs, which are longer on tergites 1-3; tergites 4-7 with predominantly black hairs laterally; lateral bristles at posterior corners of tergites 1-5 black. Sternites shiny; with long, white and erected hairs on sternites 1-4, black on sternites 5-7. Male genitalia: 45 rotated, black, with black hair, except the yellow hairs on cerci (Figs 7-9). Body length: 15.5-16.5 mm; length of wing: 10.5-12 mm. Female: Similar to male. Ovipositor circular in cross-section. Body length: 16.5 mm; length of wing: 12 mm.
Remark: The wing venation resembles that of the type of Andrenosoma otanegawana, which has a closed, but not stalked fifth radial cell. This is the common venation for many other species of Andrenosoma. The resemblance to Mactea matsumurai spec. nov. is remarkable and led some authors astray. Lehr (1999) included only M. avocettina in his work on the Asilidae of the Far East, ignoring A. otanegawana (which he had previously transferred to Mactea in 1988).

Mactea avocettina Richter & Mamaev, 1976
(Figs 4-6, 13, 17)

Mactea avocettina Richter & Mamaev, 1976: 114 (Trudy zool. Inst. 67) - with an illustration of the male genitalia in lateral and dorsal view, the larva and pupa; type-locality: Primorskiy kray, Togrovaja.
Material
1) 1 male with following label: Primorskiy kray, 40 km south of Melnicnoje, river Ussurka, 01.VIII.1986, leg. Lelej [translation from Cyrillic; 45N 134E]; Coll. COMH
2) 1 male with following label: Sutschan, Ussuri [46N 134E]; Coll. COMH
3) 1 female with following labels: (a) Southern Sachalin, western slope of Susunajského, near by river Krasnoselskoj, 22.VIII.1976, leg. M. Nesternov [translation from Cyrillic; 46N 142E] - (b) Mactea avocettina, det. P. Lehr, 1993; Coll. COMH
Geographic distribution: Russia - Far East.
Description
Male. Head black, 1.4 times as wide as high. Face about 0.7 times as wide as an eye. Facial gibbosity prominent (Figs 5,6). Face and frons with silvery tomentum. Mystax golden, with few black bristles, not reaching antennal sockets. Facial hair golden, except the black orbital hairs. Ocellar tubercle brownish tomentose; with black hairs and bristles. Postcranium silvery tomentose; dorsally with black hairs and ventrally with golden hairs. Postocular bristles thin, proclinate, black, and in 2-3 rows. Genal hairs dense and golden. Palps black, cylindrical; with golden hairs at base and black hairs at tip. Proboscis black, flattened into a blade (not triangular in cross-section), apical third upturned; with golden hairs. Antennae black, with silvery tomentum and black hairs and bristles; ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel): 1 to 0.6 to 3.4 (Fig. 4). Postpedicel apically with minute pit.
Thorax black. Antepronotum silvery tomentose; with black hairs and hairy bristles, laterally golden. Proepisternum silvery tomentose; dorsally with black hairs, ventrally with golden hairs. Prosternum fused. Scutum with silvery tomentum at sides and along transverse suture. Short hair on scutum anteriorly black, posterorly white; erected hairs as long as the length of pedical, adpressed hairs distinctly shorter. Postpronotal lobes silvery tomentose; with predominantly black hairs. Bristles: 1 notopleural, 3-4 supra-alars, 3 postalars, several acrostichals - all bristles thin and black. Pleurae black, silvery tomentose. Anepisternum with golden hair, dorsally with some few black hairs. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) yellow, in 3-4 rows, hairs apically frizzy. Postmetacoxal bridge membranous. Scutellum black, silvery tomentose; predominantly with yellow hair on disc and 10-12 black scutellar bristles on hind margin. Wings brownish tinged by microtrichia. Costa with black hairs at base. Venation: First radial cell, third medial cell, and posterior cubital cell closed and stalked, fifth radial cell open. Halteres brownish. Legs black, with only few black and thin bristles. Coxae silvery tomentose, hind coxa ventrally shiny; with white to golden hairs. Fore and mid femora anterior-ventrally with golden hairs and posterior-dorsally with white hairs. Hind femora and fore tibia with additional short and black hairs. Mid tibia with short, golden hairs and long, black and golden hairs. Hind tibia predominantly with black hairs, white hairs at base. First tarsomere of mid leg not swollen and shortened; 2.7 times as long as high. Tarsomeres with black hairs and bristles, except some whitish hairs on first tarsomeres.
Abdomen completely black. Tergites shiny, with triangular spots of silvery to golden tomentum at posterior angles of tergites 1-5 (difficult to see). Short hair on disc white and adpressed, forming whitish transverse bands at hind margin of each tergite; laterally with tufts of golden hairs (especially on tergite 1); tergite 6 predominantly with golden hairs, tergite 6 with some black hairs; lateral bristles at posterior corners of tergites 1-5 golden. Sternites with golden tomentum and long, golden and erected hairs. Male genitalia: 180 rotated, black; with black hairs and bristles and golden hairs on cerci; male genitalia illustrated in the original description, not distinguishable from the genitalia of M. matsumurai spec. nov.( Figs 10-12). Body length: 13.5-15.5 mm; length of wing: 11-11.5 mm.
Female: Similar to male, except the following characters: Scutellum with black hairs on disc. Tergites on disc with additional black, short hairs. Tergites 5 and 6 completely with golden hairs. Sternite 6 with black hairs. Ovipositor short, somewhat dorso-ventrally flattened; ventrally with a pointed tip; with black and golden hairs. Body length: 14.5 mm; length of wing: 11 mm.

Andrenosoma otanegawana & Mactea avocettina
Figs 1-3: Andrenosoma otanegawana (Matsumura, 1916); - 1: head in lateral view with mystax; - 2: head in frontal view; - 3: antenna in dorsal view.
Figs 4-6: Mactea avocettina Richter & Mamaev (1976); - 4: antenna in dorsal view; - 5: head in lateral view with mystax; - 6: head in frontal view. Scale bars 0.5 mm.

Andrenosoma otanegawana & Mactea matsumurai
Figs 7-9: Andrenosoma otanegawana (Matsumura, 1916); - 7: hypopygium in dorsal view; - 8: hypopygium in ventral view; - 9: hypogypgium in lateral view.
Figs 10-12: Mactea matsumurai spec. nov.; - 10: hypopygium in dorsal view; - 11: hypopygium in ventral view; - 12: hypogypgium in lateral view. Scale bars 0.5 mm.

Mactea chinensis spec. nov.
(Figs 14, 18)

Material
1) Holotype male with following label: China, Fukien, Kuaton, 20.VII.1967, leg. Ing. V. Zouher [26N 118E]; Coll. COMH. A future deposition will be provided in a public collection.
2) Paratype female with following label: China, Fukien, Kuaton, 20.VII.1967, leg. Ing. V. Zouher [26N 118E]; Coll. COMH.
Geographic distribution: China - Fukien.
Etymology: The species is named after the region in which it occurs.
Description
Male. Head black, 1.6 times as wide as high. Face about 0.6 times as wide as an eye. Facial gibbosity prominent. Face and frons with golden to brownish tomentum. Mystax golden, with some few black bristles, not reaching antennal sockets. Facial hair dense, long, and golden; on antennal socket errected; with black orbital hairs. Ocellar tubercle with black hairs and bristles. Postcranium silvery to brownish tomentose; dorsally with black hairs and ventrally with golden hairs. Postocular bristles thin, proclinate, black, and in 2-3 rows. Genal hairs dense, golden, apically frizzy. Palps black, cylindrical; with golden hairs. Proboscis black, flattened into a blade (not triangular in cross-section), apical third upturned; with golden hairs. Antennae black, with brownish tomentum; with black and golden hairs and bristles (pedicel predominantly with black hairs); ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel): 1 to 0.4 to 3.1. Postpedicel apically with minute pit.
Thorax black. Antepronotum silvery tomentose; with black hairs and hairy bristles, laterally golden. Proepisternum silvery tomentose; dorsally with black hairs, ventrally with golden hairs. Prosternum fused. Scutum with silvery tomentum at sides and along transverse suture. Short hair on scutum predominantly black, erected hairs as long as the length of scape, adpressed hairs shorter than the length of pedicel. Postpronotal lobes silvery tomentose; with predominantly black hairs. Bristles: 1 notopleural, 3-4 supra-alars, 3-4 postalars, several acrostichals - all bristles black. Pleurae black, silvey tomentose. Anepisternum with a remarkable tuft of golden hair (denser than in M. avocettina) and some few black hairs dorsally. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) golden, in 3-4 rows, hairs apically frizzy. Postmetacoxal bridge membranous. Scutellum black, silvery tomentose; predominantly with black hair on disc and 10-12 black scutellar bristles on hind margin. Wings brownish tinged by microtrichia. Costa with black hairs at base. Venation: First radial cell, third medial cell, and posterior cubital cell closed and stalked; fifth radial cell open. Halteres brownish. Legs black. Coxae silvery tomentose, hind coxa ventrally shiny; with white to golden hairs. Hair on femora and tibiae predominantly dense and golden, except some black, short hairs on dorsum of femora (especially on hind femora, which is swollen) and some long hairs on tibiae. Bristles black and yellow; remarkable are strong bristles at tip of mid femora (posterior-dorsal) and on the apical third of hind femora (anterior-dorsal). Tarsomeres with black bristles and black and golden hairs on fore and mid leg. First tarsomere of mid leg distinctly swollen and shortened; 1.6 times as long as high.
Abdomen black. Tergites shiny, with triangular spots of silvery tomentum at posterior angles of tergites 1-4 (difficult to see). Short hair on disc of tergites black, laterally with dense, golden hairs; tergites 5 and 6 with golden hairs at hind margin; tergites 1-5 lateral with golden bristles at posterior corners. Sternites with golden tomentum and long, golden and erected hairs (some black hairs on sternite 6). Male genitalia: 180 rotated, black, with black hairs and bristles and golden hairs on cerci; not distinguishable from the genitalia of M. matsumurai spec. nov.( Figs 10-12). Body length: 18 mm; length of wing: 12.5 mm.
Female: Similar to male, except the following characters: Postpronotal lobes with predominantly yellow hairs. Short hair on scutum anteriorly golden. No black hairs on legs, except some few on hind tibiae and tarsomeres. Tarsomeres of hind leg also with golden hairs. Tergite 6 completely with golden hairs. Ovipositor short, somewhat dorso-ventrally flattened; ventrally with a pointed tip; with black and golden hairs. Body length: 14-17 mm; length of wing: 10-14 mm.
Remark: This species resembles M. pyrrhothrix, but differs markedly in chaetotaxic characters. Shi (1992a, b) provided additional distribution records for M. pyrrhothrix from China; however, these records may relate to M. chinensis spec. nov.

Mactea matsumurai spec. nov.
(Figs 10-12, 15, 19)

Material
1) Holotype male with following label: Japan, Hokkaido, Asahikawa, 13.VIII. 1962, leg. T. Akaishi [4346'N 14222'E]; Coll. COMH. A future deposition will be provided in a public collection.
2) Paratype female with same label as holotype.
3) Paratype female with following label: Japan, Hokkaido, Asahikawa, 06.VIII. 1961, leg. T. Akaishi [4346'N 14222'E]; Coll. COMH.
Condition of types: One paratype has torn wings and the last two tarsomeres of the right mid leg are lacking on the other paratype.
Etymology: Named for Dr. S. Matsumura in appreciation of his work on the Japanese Asilidae.
Geographic distribution: Japan.
Description
Male. Head black, 1.5 times as wide as high. Face about 0.6 times as wide as an eye. Facial gibbosity prominent. Face and frons with golden to brownish tomentum. Mystax golden, with some few black bristles, not reaching antennal sockets. Facial hair dense, long and golden; on antennal socket erected; with black orbital hairs. Ocellar tubercle with black hairs and bristles. Postcranium silvery tomentose; with black hairs. Postocular bristles thin, proclinate, black, and in 2-3 rows. Genal hairs yellowish, apically frizzy. Palps black, cylindrical; apically with black hairs. Proboscis black, flattened into a blade (not triangular in cross-section), apical third upturned; with golden hairs. Antennae black, with brownish tomentum; with black hairs and bristles; ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel): 1 to 0.4 to 3.5. Postpedicel apically with minute pit.
Thorax black. Antepronotum silvery tomentose; with black hairs and hairy bristles, laterally golden. Proepisternum silvery tomentose; with black hairs. Prosternum fused. Scutum with silvery tomentum at sides and along transverse suture. Short hair on scutum black, erected hairs as long as the length of scape, adpressed hairs shorter than the length of pedicel. Postpronotal lobes silvery tomentose; with black hairs. Bristles: 1 notopleural, 3-4 supra-alars, 3-4 postalars, several acrostichals - all bristles black. Pleurae black, silvey tomentose. Anepisternum with sparse, black hairs dorsally and white hairs below. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) golden, in 3-4 rows, hairs apically frizzy. Postmetacoxal bridge membranous. Scutellum black, silvery and brownish tomentose; with black hair on disc and 10-12 black scutellar bristles on hind margin. Wings brownish tinged by microtrichia. Costa with black hairs at base. Venation: First radial cell, third medial cell, and posterior cubital cell closed and stalked; fifth radial cell open. Halteres brownish. Legs black. Coxae silvery tomentose, hind coxa ventrally shiny; with white hairs. Long hair on femora predominantly white, fore and mid femora dorsally and hind femora posteriorly and ventrally with black hairs. Short hair on femora white, fore and mid femora apically and hind femora predominantly with black hairs. Long hair on tibiae predominantly white, on hind tibia black; short hair black and white. Bristles black; apical third of hind femora anterior-dorsally without bristle. Tarsomeres with black bristles and black hairs, first tarsomere of fore and mid leg predominatly with white hairs. Hind femur swollen. First tarsomere of mid leg swollen and shortened; 2 times as long as high.
Abdomen black. Tergites shiny, with triangular spots of silvery tomentum at posterior angles of tergites 1-4. Short hair on disc black; tergites laterally with white hairs (forming triangular spots at posterior angels of tergites); tergites 5 completely with black hairs; tergites 1-5 lateral with yellowish bristles at posterior corners. Sternites with few brownish tomentum and long, yellowish and erected hairs (some black hairs on sternite 6). Male genitalia: 180 rotated, black, with black hairs and bristles and golden hairs on cerci (Figs 10-12). Body length: 17.5 mm; length of wing: 12.5 mm.
Female: Similar to male, except the following characters: Mystax predominantly black with few yellow hairs. Antennal socket with black hairs. Some few yellow hairs on the anterior dorsum of scutum (in one of the paratypes). Long hairs on hind femora white, short hairs on hind femora apically and ventrally black. First tarsomere of hind leg with few white hairs. Ovipositor short, somewhat dorso-ventrally flattened; ventrally with a pointed tip; with black and golden hairs. Body length: 15.5-16 mm; length of wing: 12.5-13 mm.
Remark: The new species resembles M. chinensis spec. nov., but differs markedly in many characteristics. The resemblance to Andrenosoma otanegawana is remarkable and led some authors to misidentify specimens in the past.

Mactea pyrrhothrix (Hermann, 1914) comb. nov.
(Figs 16, 20)

Laphria pyrrhothrix Hermann, 1914 (Ent. Mitt. 3: 104) - with an illustration of male genitalia in lateral view; type-locality: Formosa [Taiwan], Toyenmongai, Hoozan.
Choerades pyrrhothrix: Lehr (1991).
Laphria pyrrhothrix Becker: Shi (1992a) (wrong authorship).
Laphria pyrrhothrix: Shi (1992b) - with illustration of the head in lateral view.
Material
1) 1 female with following label: China, Formosa, Chiuchinglin [Taiwan; 23N 121E]; Coll. COMH
Geographic distribution: China - Taiwan.
Description
Female. Head black, 1.6 times as wide as high. Face about 0.6 times as wide as an eye. Facial gibbosity prominent. Face and frons with golden to brownish tomentum. Mystax golden, with some few black bristles, not reaching antennal sockets. Facial hair dense, long, and golden; on antennal socket erected; with black orbital hairs. Ocellar tubercle with black hairs and bristles. Postcranium silvery to brownish tomentose; dorsally with black hairs and ventrally with golden hairs. Postocular bristles thin, proclinate, black, and in 2-3 rows. Genal hairs dense, golden, apically frizzy. Palps black, cylindrical; with golden hairs. Proboscis black, flattened into a blade (not triangular in cross-section), apical third upturned; with golden hairs. Antennae black, with brownish tomentum; with black and golden hairs and bristles (pedicel predominantly with black hairs); ratio of segments (scape, pedicel, postpedicel): 1 to 0.4 to 3.1. Postpedicel apically with minute pit.
Thorax black. Antepronotum silvery tomentose; with black and golden hairs and hairy bristles. Proepisternum silvery tomentose; with golden hairs. Prosternum fused. Scutum with silvery tomentum at sides and along transverse suture. Short hair on scutum anteriorly golden, posteriorly black; black, erected hairs on disc as long as the length of pedicel, adpressed hairs shorter than the length of pedicel. Postpronotal lobes silvery tomentose; with golden hairs. Bristles: 1 notopleural, 3-4 supra-alars, 3-4 postalars, several acrostichals - all bristles black. Pleurae black, silvey tomentose. Anepisternum with a remarkable tuft of golden hair and some few black hairs dorsally. Katatergal bristles (postnotal fan) golden, in 3-4 rows, hairs apically frizzy. Postmetacoxal bridge membranous. Scutellum black, silvery tomentose; predominantly with black hair on disc and 10-12 black scutellar bristles on hind margin. Wings brownish tinged by microtrichia. Costa with black hairs at base. Venation: First radial cell, third medial cell, and posterior cubital cell closed and stalked; fifth radial cell open. Halteres brownish. Legs black. Coxae silvery tomentose, hind coxa ventrally shiny; with golden hairs. Hair on femora and tibiae golden, except some black, short hairs on dorsum of hind tibia. Bristles black and yellow. Tarsomeres with black bristles and black and golden hairs. First tarsomere of mid leg distinctly swollen and shortened; 1.6 times as long as high.
Abdomen black. Tergites shiny, with small triangular spots of silvery tomentum at posterior angles of tergites 1-4 (difficult to see). Tergites completely covered with dense, golden hairs, except tergites 1-4, which have small spots of black hairs on disc; the golden hair seems to be wavy combed, anteriorly from outside to inside, posteriorly from inside to outside. Tergites 1-5 lateral with golden bristles at posterior corners. Sternites with golden tomentum and long, golden and erected hairs (some black hairs on sternite 6). Body length: 17 mm; length of wing: 14 mm.
Remark: This species resembles M. chinensis spec. nov., but differs markedly based on chaetotaxy. Unfortunately, the Coll. HNHM was destroyed 1956, so the types of M. pyrrhothrix are lost. Shi (1992a, b) provided new records of M. pyrrhothrix from China. Possibly these records relate to M. chinensis spec. nov. The illustration by Shi (1992b ) of the head is definitely that of a species of Mactea based on the characters of antenna and proboscis, but the facial gibbosity is either wrong or it must be an undescribed species.

Andrenosoma otanegawana & Mactea matsumurai
Figs 13-16: dorsal view: 13: Mactea avocettina Richter & Mamaev (1976), male, body length: 13.5 mm. - 14: Mactea chinensis spec. nov., male, body length: 17 mm. - 15: Mactea matsumurai spec. nov., male, body length: 17.5 mm. - 16: Mactea pyrrhothrix (Hermann, 1914), female, body length: 17 mm.

Andrenosoma otanegawana & Mactea matsumurai
Figs 17-20: Tergites of different Mactea species: 17: Mactea avocettina Richter & Mamaev (1976), male. - 18: Mactea chinensis spec. nov., male. - 19: Mactea matsumurai spec. nov., male. - 20: Mactea pyrrhothrix (Hermann, 1914), female.

 

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Key to the species
Because of the close resemblance between Mactea matsumurai spec. nov. and Andrenosoma otanegawana, the latter species is included in the following key.

1

Fifth radial cell closed and often stalked; proboscis triangular in cross-section, ventrally flattened, shorter than the mystax (Figs 1, 2); postpedicel tear-shaped and shorter than 3 times of the length of scape; last palpal segment flattened; hind margin of scutellum shiny; male genitalia: maximally 45 rotated; small; epandria and cerci not fused (Figs 7-9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andrenosoma otanegawana Matsumura, 1916 [Japan]

-

Fifth radial cell widely open; proboscis flattened into a blade, apical third upturned, distictly longer than the mystax (Figs 5,6); postpedicel more or less straight and longer than 3 times of the length of scape; last palpal segment cylindrical; scutellum completely tomentose; male genitalia: 180 rotated; large; epandria and cerci fused (Figs 10-12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2

First tarsomere of mid leg not strongly swollen, more than 2.5 times as long as high; mid femora posterior-dorsally with strong bristle at tip; short hair on disc of tergites white in males, forming whitish transverse bands at hind margin of each tergite, tergite 6 predominantly with golden hairs in both sexes; anepisternum dorsally with white and black hairs, not forming a tuft (also known from M. matsumurai spec. nov.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mactea avocettina Richter & Mamaev, 1976 [Russia - Far East]

-

First tarsomere of mid leg strongly swollen and shortened, shorter than 2 times as long as high; mid femora posterior-dorsally with strong bristle at tip; short hair on disc of tergites black or golden in both sexes, never forming transverse bands; anepisternum dorsally with a tuft of golden hairs (or with black and white hairs in M. matsumurai spec. nov.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3

Anepisternum dorsally with white and black hairs, not forming a tuft; last palpal segment with black hairs; proepisternum with black hairs; legs with black and white hairs; tergites laterally with white hairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. matsumurai spec. nov. [Japan]

-

Anepisternum dorsally with a tuft of golden hairs; last palpal segment with golden hairs; proepisternum with black and golden or only golden hairs; legs predominantly with golden hairs; tergites laterally with golden hairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

4

Short hair on disc of tergites predominantly black, laterally with dense, golden hairs; tergites 5 and 6 with golden hairs at hind margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. chinensis spec. nov. [China - Fukien]

-

Tergites completely covered with dense, golden hairs, except tergites 1-4, which have small spots of black hairs on disc; the golden hair seems to be wavy combed, anteriorly from outside to inside, posteriorly from inside to outside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. pyrrhothrix (Hermann, 1914) [China - Taiwan]

Discussion

One female from Japan (Mt. Yuwan, Amami-oshima. Coll. R. Kano [2815'N 12920'E]) in the Coll. COMH could not be assigned to one of the described species. It is very similar in most characteristics to M. chinensis spec. nov., but differs markedly in size (body length: 14 mm, length of wing: 10 mm) and chaetotaxy (last segment of palpi and postpronotal lobes with black hairs; short hair on scutum much more sparese). Based on these criteria, it seems to be an undescribed species.
In addition there is an unidentified female in the Coll. ZSMC from Sumatra (Dolok Merangir, Medan, 10.XI.1981, leg. E. Diehl) [333'N 9840'E], which makes the great distribution also in the Oriental region clear. Unfortunately only a few specimens of Mactea are in private or public collections. The lack of sufficient material makes the description of new species on the basis of females difficult, in part because of the sexual dimorphism in this genus. Furthermore, because male genitalia are very similar (as in Laphria and Choerades), males can not used for species recognition. Our knowledge of the Palaearctic and Oriental Laphriinae is inadequate and further studies are necessary.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Dr. Masaaki Suwa (Hokkaido University) and Dr. Masahiro Ohara (Hokkaido University) for providing the type specimen of Andrenosoma otanegawana from the Matsumura collection and Dr. Robert Lavigne (Mount Barker, Australia) for helpful discussions and comments on an early draft of this paper.

Literature

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  • Lehr, P.A. (1988): Family Asilidae. - In: Soos, A. & Papp, L. (eds): Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 5: 197-326. Budapest; Akadémiai Kiadó.
  • Lehr, P.A. (1989): Robber flies of the subfamily Laphriinae (Diptera, Asilidae) of USSR. - Entomologiceskoe Obozreniye 68(2): 406-421; Moscow. [In Russian; English translation: Entomological Review, Washington 68(6): 121-136; 1992].
  • Lehr, P.A. (1991): Revision of robber flies of the genus Choerades Walker, 1851, and notes on the structure of the subfamily Laphriinae (Diptera, Asilidae). - Entomologiceskoe Obozreniye 70(3): 694-715; Moscow [In Russian; English translation: Entomological Review, Washington 71(4): 70-93; 1992].
  • Lehr, P.A. (1999): 52. Fam. Asilidae. - In: Lehr, P.A. (ed.): Key to the insects of Russian Far East. Vol. VI. Diptera and Siphonaptera. Pt. 1; 591-640. - Vladivostok. [In Russian]
  • Hermann, F. (1914): H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute. Mydaidae et Asilidae (Dasypogoninae, Laphrinae et Leptogastrinae) (Dipt.). - Entomologische Mitteilungen 3(4): 102-112; Berlin-Dahlem. [In German]
  • Hisamatsu, S. (1965): Asilidae. - In: Iconographia Insectorum Japonicorum, Vol. III; 201-204. - Tokyo. [In Japanese]
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  • McAlpine, J.F. (1981): Morphology and terminology - Adults; 9-63. - In: McAlpine, J.P. et al. (eds.), Manuel of Nearctic Diptera, Vol. 1; Hull (Quebec): Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Monograph 27.
  • Richter, V.A. & Mamaev, B.M. (1976): New genus of the robber flies (Diptera, Asilidae) from the Far East. - Trudy zoologicheskogo Instituta. Akademiya Nauk 47: 113-116; St. Petersbourg. [In Russian]
  • Shi, Y. (1992a): Diptera: Asilidae. - In: Huang, F. (ed.): Insects of Wuling Mountains area, southwestern China; 589-595. - Beijing: Science Press. [In Chinese]
  • Shi, Y. (1992b): Diptera: Asilidae, Rachiceridae, Stratiomyidae, Rhagionidae. - In: Peng Jianwen & Liu Youqia (eds.): Iconography of forest insects in Hunan; 1116-1133. - Hunan. [In Chinese]
  • Shiraki, T. (1959): Asilidae. - In: Iconographia Insectorum Japonicorum; 1597-1606. - Tokyo. [In Japanese]
  • Stuckenberg, B.R. (1999): Antennal evolution in the Brachycera (Diptera), with a reassessment of terminology relating to the flagellum. - Studia dipterologica 6(1): 33-48; Halle (Saale).
Authors' addresses:

Milan Hradský
Mlékovice 40
28144 Zásmuky
Czech Republic

Fritz Geller-Grimm
Museum Wiesbaden [MWNH]
Department of Natural Science Collections
Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 2
65185 Wiesbaden
Germany
Email
www.geller-grimm.de/asilidae.htm

The paper was accepted on 10 June 2002.
Editum: 15 April 2003.


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Compiled by: F. Geller-Grimm